Fitness TerminologyCross TrainingExercise QuestionsExercise Programs
Fitness Terminology
Before You Start An Exercise Program, Consult Your Therapist And Physician.

We would like to introduce you to some common fitness terms that will hopefully improve your knowledge of and interest in physical fitness.

Fitness – sound physically and mentally; AKA healthy

Repetitions (commonly called “reps”) – the number of times one repeats a movement. For example, if you lift a weight with your arm 10 times, you have performed 10 repetitions.

Set(s) – a discrete number of repetitions. For example, if you lift a weight 10 times, rest, and lift the weight 10 times again, you have performed “two sets” of 10 repetitions.

Muscle – the contractile unit responsible for moving your bones.

Tendon – the non-contractile unit that transmits the force of the muscle to the bone. Tendons connect muscles to bones.

Ligament – the soft tissues that hold two or more bones together.

Cartilage – connective tissue that covers the ends of bones and acts as a cushion to absorb shock and a smooth surface to decrease friction between two or more bones in a moving joint.

Aerobic Exercise – The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) defines aerobic exercise as “any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmic in nature.” Aerobic means in the presence of oxygen. In other words, your body is burning its fuel (glucose) in the presence of oxygen. It is performed at less than 85% of your maximum heart rate. An aerobically fit individual can work longer, more vigorously and achieve a quicker recovery at the end of the aerobic session. Jogging, cycling, swimming, aerobics classes, and rowing are examples of aerobic exercise.

Anaerobic Exercise – working at higher than 85% of your maximum heart rate. It involves short bursts of exertion followed by periods of rest. Anaerobic means in the absence of oxygen. In other words, it is the burning of glucose, by the body, without the use of oxygen. Weight training and sprinting are examples of anaerobic exercise.

Plyometrics – Exercises characterized by the application of a quick muscle stretch followed by rapid muscle shortening enabling muscle(s) to achieve maximal rates of force development. They are intended to improve reactive/explosive muscle performance.

Circuit Training – selected weight-training exercises performed one after another in an exercise sequence, usually using lighter weights and short periods of rest.

Flexibility – the total range of motion in a joint or joints.

Strength – a muscle(s) ability to generate force. It is usually measured with a one repetition maximum.

Resistance Training – the use of external force to build up the body’s ability to exert muscular force. AKA – weight or strength training.

Endurance – the ability of muscle(s) to contract repeatedly and resist fatigue.

Core Strength – a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder muscles. Core exercises should receive priority because of their direct application to a sport.

Cross Training – the use of more than one type of exercise to achieve your training goals.

Periodization – according to the American College of Sports Medicine, periodized training is planned variation in the total amount of exercise performed in a given period of time (intensity and volume of exercise). All periodization terminology describes either a certain type of training, a certain portion of a training cycle, or a certain length of time within a training cycle.

Proprioception – the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know where it is going. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

Pilates – a series of non-impact exercises designed by Joseph Pilates to develop strength, flexibility, and balance.

Bosu Ball – an exercise ball that’s been cut in half with a platform on the bottom.

Exercise Ball – a large rubber ball 55 to 85+ centimeters in diameter used for strength, balance, and flexibility exercise. AKA therapy ball or Swiss ball.

Medicine Ball – weight balls (4-12 inches in diameter) used for resistance or plyometric training.

Dumbbell – Weights used for exercising consisting of a handle with either detachable metal plates or fixed weights at each end.

– Weight used for exercise, consisting of a rigid handle 5-7 feet long, with detachable metal plate that slide on and off the ends.

Maximum Heart Rate
– the fastest your heart can beat. It is found by taking 220 and subtracting your age. (Max HR = 220 – age)

Target Heart Rate – your target heart rate is a range you exercise in and should be 60-85% of your maximum heart rate. – (220 – age) x 60% = bottom end of Target Heart Range – (220 – age) x 85% = top end of Target Heart Range – Exercise is considered aerobic if performed within this range.

Warm Up – a five to eight minute period of gradual exercise (involving the larger muscles of the body) to increase circulation and decrease joint stiffness, in preparation for exercise of a greater intensity.

Cross Training – How it Can Help You!

Before You Start Any Exercise Program, Consult Your Therapist And Physician.
Cross Training – You may have heard the term in the gym, know of athletes that cross train, or you may even be wearing cross-training shoes. The simple definition of cross training is the use of more than one type of exercise to achieve your training goals.

For example, you may want to improve your vertical jump to better your basketball skills. To improve your jump, your therapist could show you some cross training exercises. We might have you do some leg press weight training and plyometric jumps. In this example, we are using two different types of exercise to help you achieve your goal – to jump higher.

But why should you cross train? The answers are that the body gets real good at the specific exercise(s) we perform. This is called specificity of training. If you do wrist curls every day you’ll get real good at wrist curls but your chest muscles won’t get any stronger. Or, if you cycle all day you will be a good cyclist but not nearly as good at swimming. Cross training stresses the muscles with a variety of exercises. It prepares the body for the myriad of stresses that you experience each day. If you cross train, you’ll develop better strength, endurance, flexibility, and coordination over a greater variety of challenges and movements.

Secondly, cross training works all three types of muscle fibers. The slow twitch, endurance muscle fibers and the both types of fast twitch fibers benefit from cross training.

Finally, cross training keeps you psychologically interested in training. You’re not doing the same thing every day when you cross train. It is hard to stick to an exercise program. However, with proper instruction and motivation and a good cross training program, you’ll be on your way to success.

Cross training can be performed with a variety of resistance exercises or a variety of aerobic exercises. Here is an aerobic cross training sample for you.

Day 1

Walk on the treadmill 10 minutes.
Stationary cycle 10 minutes.
Rowing Machine 10 minutes

Day 2

Jogging on the treadmill 10 minutes.
Cross trainer machine 10 minutes.
Stair stepper 10 minutes

Day 3

Swim 20 minutes.
Rollerblade 20 minutes

Day 4

Walk 20 minutes.
Climb stairs 20 minutes

If you want a good cross training program. Just give us a call. We would be happy to put something together for you.

Can the exercises be overdone?

Sure-if your pain increases (as a general rule, you shouldn’t have pain for more than 10 minutes after you exercise), range of motion decreases, or your function becomes increasingly limited, you are overdoing it.

How far should I stretch into pain?

When performing a stretch, you should stretch to the point of pain unless otherwise instructed by your therapist. Stretching through pain rarely is helpful.

How long will it take for me to recover from my problem?

It depends on your diagnosis, the severity of your problem, and how long you’ve had your problem. Your therapist will give you an estimated time frame for recovery.

When should I increase the weight with an exercise?

Ask your therapist. Generally, if the resistance feels light and you can easily do 20-30 reps straight, add weight.

How many times should I repeat an exercise?

Repeating an exercise movement 10-15 times (also called 10-15 repetitions) is adequate to stimulate healing and neuromuscular reeducation. Physiological muscle hypertrophy (gaining muscle mass) is typically accomplished with 3 sets of 6-8 reps and working to failure (the point at which you couldn’t do a 9th rep for example). Hypertrophy is not the typical goal of rehabilitation exercises.

How can I tell if I am making progress?

Progress is typically determined by your symptoms and level of function. If your pain is decreasing, range of motion is improving, it is easier to lift something, put on a shirt, sleep on your shoulder, etc. These would be signs of improvement.

What should I do if I am not improving?

If you are not improving, contact to your therapist. He/she will have additional recommendations.

Do I perform all of my exercises-one after the other?

The exercises are typically done one right after the other and the order does not matter. Your therapist may have specific instructions for you.

Available Programs

Neck Stretching Exercises
Neck Stretching Exercises – Advanced
Isometric Neck Strengthening
Scapulo-thoracic (Middle Back)
Middle Back Stretching Program
Middle Back Strengthening Program
Middle Back Strengthening with Resistive Bands
Middle Back Strengthening with Therapeutic Ball

Codman’s Pendulum Exercises
Rotator Cuff Strengthening Program
Rotator Cuff Strengthening with Resistive Bands
General Shoulder Strengthening Program
General Shoulder Stretching Program
Frozen Shoulder Stretching Program

Postural Stretching Program
Postural Strengthening

Abdominal Strengthening
Advanced Abdominal Strengthening
Abdominal Strengthening with Therapeutic Ball

Low Back
Stretch and Strengthen
Low Back Strengthening
Low Back Stenosis Program
Lumbar Stabilization Program
Sub-Acute Low Back Pain Program


Hip Range of Motion
Hip Strengthening Program

Knee Range of Motion Program
Kneecap Pain Program
Advanced Knee Strengthening Program
Thigh Strengthening with Therapeutic Ball
Adductor Stretches/Strengthening
TFL/ITB Stretches
Quadricep Stretches
Hamstring Stretches
Hip Flexor Stretch

Tennis Elbow Program
Golfer’s Elbow Program
Carpal Tunnel Tendon Gliding

Standing Calf Stretching
Ankle Range of Motion
Plantar Fasciitis Program
Ankle Sprain Program
Achilles Tendinosis Program

Sports Specific Program
Throwing Strength Program
Golf Stretching Program
Golf Strengthening Program
Skiing Preparation Program

Workstation Programs

Workstation Stretches